Metadata principles and applications

  • Baca, Murtha ed. (1998). Introduction to Metadata: Pathways to Digital Information Getty Information Institute. Version 2.1 is available online. URL:
  • Caplan, Priscilla (2000). International metadata initiatives: lessons in bibliographic control. Paper presented at: Conference on Bibliographic Control in the New Millennium, Library of Congress, November, 2000. URL:
  • Caplan, Priscilla (2003). Metadata fundamentals for all librarians. Chicago : American Library Association.
  • Duval, Erik, Wayne Hodgins, Stuart Sutton, Stuart L. Weibel (2002). Metadata principles and practicalities. D-Lib Magazine 8(4). URL:
  • Greenberg, Jane ed. (2000). Metadata and Organizing Educational Resources on the Internet. (A monograph published simultaneously as the Journal of Internet Cataloging, Vol. 3, Nos. 1 and 2/3.) The Haworth Press, Inc.
  • Hillmann, Diane I. and Westbrooks, Elaine L. eds. (2004). Metadata in Practice. Chicago : American Library Association.
  • Integrating Multiple Overlapping Metadata Standards, a Special Topic Issue. (1999). Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(13). Edited by Ercegovac Zorana. URL: (abstracts)
  • Intner, Sheila S. Tseng, Sally C. and Larsgaard, Mary Lynette eds. (2003). Electronic Cataloging : AACR2 and Metadata for Serials and Monographs. New York : Haworth Information Press.
  • NISO (2004). Understanding Metadata. Bethesda, MD: NISO Press. URL:

The role of metadata in knowledge organization

  • Haynes, David (2004). Metadata for Information Management and Retrieval. London: Facet Publishing.
  • Hill, Linda. (2006). Georeferencing Elements in Metadata Standards. Chapter 6 in Georeferencing — The Geographic Associations of Information. Boston: MIT Press.
  • Karpuk, Deborah (2004). Metadata: From Resource Discovery to Knowledge Management. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.
  • NISO. (2004). A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections. Bethesda, MD: NISO Press. URL:
  • Taylor, Arlene G. (2003). The Organization of Information. 2nd ed. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited.


  • METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard)
    The METS schema is a standard for encoding descriptive, administrative, and structural metadata regarding objects within a digital library, expressed using the XML schema language.
  • Resource Description Framework (RDF)
    Model and Syntax Specification, W3C.
    RDF is a foundation for processing metadata; it provides interoperability between applications that exchange machine-understandable information on the Web. RDF emphasizes facilities to enable automated processing of Web resources. RDF can be used in a variety of application areas.
    The broad goal of RDF is to define a mechanism for describing resources that makes no assumptions about a particular application domain, nor defines (a priori) the semantics of any application domain. The definition of the mechanism should be domain neutral, yet the mechanism should be suitable for describing information about any domain.
  • Semantic Web Activity, W3C.
    (This site contains previous “Metadata activity statement” contents.)
    The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries. It is a collaborative effort led by W3C with participation from a large number of researchers and industrial partners. It is based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF), which integrates a variety of applications using XML for syntax and URIs for naming.


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